Adverse Drug Reaction Classification System

Pharmaceutical Information
Drug Name Epinephrine bitartrate
Drug ID BADD_D00783
Description Epinephrine, also known as _adrenaline_, is a hormone and neurotransmitter and produced by the adrenal glands that can also be used as a drug due to its various important functions. Though it has long been used in the treatment of hypersensitivity reactions, epinephrine in the auto-injector form (EpiPen) has been available since 1987 in the USA. Many new products/biosimilars and dosage routes have been approved under various names over the last several decades [L4355], [L4356], [L4358]. On August 16, 2018, Teva Pharmaceuticals USA gained approval to market its generic epinephrine auto-injector in 0.3 mg and 0.15 mg strengths [L4353]. Dosage delivery routes for epinephrine include intravenous, inhalation, nebulization, intramuscular injection, and subcutaneous injection. In general, the most common uses of parenteral epinephrine are to relieve respiratory distress due to bronchospasm, to provide rapid relief of hypersensitivity (anaphylactic or anaphylactoid) reactions to drugs, animal serums and other allergens, and to prolong the action of infiltration anesthetics [F2136]. In addition to the above functions, epinephrine is the primary drug administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to reverse cardiac arrest [A37697], [A37699]. It can be used in severe cases of croup [L4824].
Indications and Usage Used to treat anaphylaxis and sepsis. Also one of the body's main adrenergic neurotransmitters.
Marketing Status Prescription; Discontinued
ATC Code A01AD01; B02BC09; C01CA24; R01AA14; R03AA01; S01EA01
DrugBank ID DB00668
KEGG ID D02149
MeSH ID D004837
PubChem ID 5815
TTD Drug ID D04PHC
NDC Product Code 62991-2863; 51927-2395; 51552-0454; 12828-0083; 65832-0005; 65015-855; 82245-0115; 49452-2750; 51927-0053; 54871-1096; 54871-1097
Synonyms Epinephrine | 4-(1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl)-1,2-benzenediol | Adrenaline | Epinephrine Acetate | Acetate, Epinephrine | Medihaler-Epi | Epinephrine Hydrochloride | Adrenaline Hydrochloride | Epitrate | Lyophrin | Epifrin | Epinephrine Bitartrate | Adrenaline Acid Tartrate | Epinephrine Hydrogen Tartrate | Adrenaline Bitartrate
Chemical Information
Molecular Formula C13H19NO9
CAS Registry Number 51-42-3
SMILES CNCC(C1=CC(=C(C=C1)O)O)O.C(C(C(=O)O)O)(C(=O)O)O
Chemical Structure
ADR Related Proteins Induced by Drug
ADR Term Protein Name UniProt AC TTD Target ID PMID
Drug ineffectiveLeptinP41159T79485Not Available
HyperglycaemiaPro-glucagonP06883Not AvailableNot Available
InflammationInterleukin-8P10145T22658Not Available
Myocardial infarctionCreatine kinase M-typeP00563Not AvailableNot Available
Platelet aggregationAlpha-2A adrenergic receptorP08913T11448Not Available
ADRs Induced by Drug
ADR Term ADReCS ID ADR Frequency (FAERS) ADR Severity Grade (FAERS) ADR Severity Grade (CTCAE)
Agitation19.06.02.001; 17.02.05.012--
Arrhythmia02.03.02.001--Not Available
Blood pressure increased13.14.03.005--Not Available
Cerebral haemorrhage24.07.04.001; 17.08.01.003--Not Available
Cerebrovascular accident24.03.05.001; 17.08.01.007--
Chest pain22.02.08.003; 08.01.08.002; 02.02.02.011--Not Available
Disorientation19.13.01.002; 17.02.05.015--Not Available
Dizziness02.01.02.004; 24.06.02.007; 17.02.05.003--
Drug interaction08.06.03.001--Not Available
Erythema23.03.06.001--Not Available
Extravasation08.01.03.008--Not Available
Feeling cold08.01.09.008--Not Available
Flushing23.06.05.003; 08.01.03.025; 24.03.01.002--
Gas gangrene24.04.05.009; 23.09.01.019; 11.02.02.008--Not Available
Gastrointestinal disorder07.11.01.001--Not Available
Haemoglobin13.01.05.018--Not Available
Hallucination19.10.02.002--
Hemiplegia17.01.04.002--Not Available
Hyperglycaemia14.06.02.002; 05.06.02.002--
Hyperhidrosis23.02.03.004; 08.01.03.028--
Hypertension24.08.02.001--
Hypoaesthesia17.02.06.023--Not Available
Hypoglycaemia14.06.03.001; 05.06.03.001--
Hypokalaemia14.05.03.002--
Insomnia17.15.03.002; 19.02.01.002--
Lactic acidosis14.01.01.002--Not Available
Local reaction08.01.03.012--Not Available
Memory impairment19.20.01.003; 17.03.02.003--
Mydriasis17.02.11.003; 06.05.03.004--Not Available
Myocardial infarction02.02.02.007; 24.04.04.009--
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