Adverse Drug Reaction Classification System

Pharmaceutical Information
Drug Name Epinephrine
Drug ID BADD_D00782
Description Epinephrine, also known as _adrenaline_, is a hormone and neurotransmitter and produced by the adrenal glands that can also be used as a drug due to its various important functions. Though it has long been used in the treatment of hypersensitivity reactions, epinephrine in the auto-injector form (EpiPen) has been available since 1987 in the USA. Many new products/biosimilars and dosage routes have been approved under various names over the last several decades [L4355], [L4356], [L4358]. On August 16, 2018, Teva Pharmaceuticals USA gained approval to market its generic epinephrine auto-injector in 0.3 mg and 0.15 mg strengths [L4353]. Dosage delivery routes for epinephrine include intravenous, inhalation, nebulization, intramuscular injection, and subcutaneous injection. In general, the most common uses of parenteral epinephrine are to relieve respiratory distress due to bronchospasm, to provide rapid relief of hypersensitivity (anaphylactic or anaphylactoid) reactions to drugs, animal serums and other allergens, and to prolong the action of infiltration anesthetics [F2136]. In addition to the above functions, epinephrine is the primary drug administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to reverse cardiac arrest [A37697], [A37699]. It can be used in severe cases of croup [L4824].
Indications and Usage Used to treat anaphylaxis and sepsis. Also one of the body's main adrenergic neurotransmitters.
Marketing Status Prescription; Discontinued
ATC Code A01AD01; B02BC09; C01CA24; R01AA14; R03AA01; S01EA01
DrugBank ID DB00668
KEGG ID D00095
MeSH ID D004837
PubChem ID 5816
TTD Drug ID D04PHC
NDC Product Code 49502-102; 51662-1321; 51927-0074; 43835-0027; 43835-0026; 70518-1224; 50090-2058; 42023-168; 62250-102; 51662-1223; 65832-0007; 0409-4921; 76329-3316; 51662-1221; 0409-4933; 61434-040; 51927-5014; 50090-4543; 0093-5986; 49502-501; 70518-2781; 60842-023; 50090-3039; 51552-0526; 0220-0076; 76329-9060; 51662-1381; 82245-0116; 0115-1694; 71872-7007; 42023-159; 51662-1320; 51927-0110; 51662-1476; 54288-120; 63083-1553; 51662-1507; 63629-8801; 0220-0078; 12828-0082; 70518-3173; 52584-004; 70518-1215; 0115-1695; 50090-5254; 78670-131; 71872-7250; 60842-022; 71872-7040; 51662-1222; 42291-425; 76420-188; 51662-1225; 65392-1405; 49502-500; 50090-3155; 0404-9857; 65015-846; 60842-021; 70518-2048; 52584-103; 54288-103; 71872-7117; 62756-996; 71872-7134; 71872-7223; 51662-1531; 78670-130; 0093-5985; 51662-1224; 59349-0028; 49452-2740; 50090-4506; 71872-7103; 49502-101; 50090-5569; 61434-041; 70518-2283; 0404-9856; 71872-7173; 71872-7120; 52221-114; 71872-7172; 62250-103; 71872-7135
Synonyms Epinephrine | 4-(1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl)-1,2-benzenediol | Adrenaline | Epinephrine Acetate | Acetate, Epinephrine | Medihaler-Epi | Epinephrine Hydrochloride | Adrenaline Hydrochloride | Epitrate | Lyophrin | Epifrin | Epinephrine Bitartrate | Adrenaline Acid Tartrate | Epinephrine Hydrogen Tartrate | Adrenaline Bitartrate
Chemical Information
Molecular Formula C9H13NO3
CAS Registry Number 51-43-4
SMILES CNCC(C1=CC(=C(C=C1)O)O)O
Chemical Structure
ADR Related Proteins Induced by Drug
ADR Term Protein Name UniProt AC TTD Target ID PMID
Drug ineffectiveLeptinP41159T7948510487703; 7566150; 9330585
HyperglycaemiaPro-glucagonP06883Not Available2863911; 2876643; 2873022; 2101322; 2904767; 1681438; 6146542; 2563682; 2891576; 2574406
InflammationInterleukin-8P10145T226589169777; 12871375; 10348705; 9435641; 9631245; 12538206; 8902882; 15383152; 9717082
Myocardial infarctionCreatine kinase M-typeP00563Not Available10390295; 7864472; 1375027
Platelet aggregationAlpha-2A adrenergic receptorP08913T11448Not Available
ADRs Induced by Drug
ADR Term ADReCS ID ADR Frequency (FAERS) ADR Severity Grade (FAERS) ADR Severity Grade (CTCAE)
Abdominal pain07.01.05.002--
Abdominal pain upper07.01.05.003--
Acute myocardial infarction02.02.02.001; 24.04.04.0010.000403%Not Available
Acute pulmonary oedema02.05.02.004; 22.01.03.0050.001158%Not Available
Acute respiratory distress syndrome22.01.03.0010.000252%
Agitation19.06.02.001; 17.02.05.0120.001544%
Anaphylactic reaction24.06.03.006; 10.01.07.0010.002517%
Anaphylactic shock24.06.02.004; 10.01.07.0020.001544%Not Available
Angina pectoris24.04.04.002; 02.02.02.0020.000772%
Angle closure glaucoma06.03.01.0010.000386%Not Available
Anxiety19.06.02.0020.003666%
Aphasia19.21.01.001; 17.02.03.0010.000579%
Arrhythmia02.03.02.0010.001351%Not Available
Arteriospasm coronary24.04.04.005; 02.02.02.0050.001930%Not Available
Arthralgia15.01.02.001--
Asthenia08.01.01.001--Not Available
Asthma22.03.01.002; 10.01.03.0100.000772%Not Available
Atrial fibrillation02.03.03.0020.001351%
Atrial tachycardia02.03.03.0040.000579%
Blister23.03.01.001; 12.01.06.0020.000386%Not Available
Blood creatine phosphokinase increased13.04.01.0010.000965%
Blood pressure decreased13.14.03.0020.001351%Not Available
Blood pressure increased13.14.03.0050.004824%Not Available
Blood pressure systolic increased13.14.03.0060.000579%Not Available
Bone pain15.02.01.0010.000386%
Bradycardia02.03.02.0020.003087%Not Available
Burning sensation17.02.06.001; 08.01.09.0290.000579%Not Available
Cardiac arrest02.03.04.0010.001007%
Cardiac failure02.05.01.001--
Cardiac failure congestive02.05.01.002--Not Available
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